职称英语(理工) 题目列表
共用题干第三篇Almost Human?Scientists are racing to build the world's first thinking robot.This is not science fiction: some say they will have made it by the year 2020.Carol Packer reports.Machines that walk,speak and feel are no longer science fiction.Kismet is the nameof an android(机器人)which scientists have built at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT).Kismet is different from the traditional robot because it can show human emotions.Its eyes,ears and lips move to show when it feels happy,sad or bored. Kismet is one of the first of a new generation of androids一robots that look like human beings一which can imitate human feelings.Cog,another android invented by the MIT, imitates the action of a mother. However,scientists admit that so far Cog has the mental ability of a two-year-old.The optimists(乐观主义者)say that by the year 2020 we will have created humanoids (机器人)with brains similar to those of an adult human being. These robots will be designed to look like people to make them more attractive and easier to sell to the public. What kind of jobs will they do?In the future,robots like Robonaut,a humanoid invented by NASA,will be doing dangerous jobs,like repairing space stations.They wi}{also be doing more and more of the household work for us.In Japan,scientists are designing androids that will entertain us by dancing and playing the piano.Some people worry about what the future holds:will robots become monsters(怪物)? Will people themselves become increasingly like robots?Experts predict that more and more people will be wearing micro-computers,connected to the Internet,in the future.People will have micro-chips in various parts of their body,which will connect them to a wide variety of gadgets(小装置).Perhaps we should not exaggerate(夸大)the importance of technology,but one wonders whether,in years to come,we will still be falling in love, and whether we will still feel pain.Who knows?Kismet is different from traditional robots becauseA:it thinks for itself. B:itis not like science fiction.C:it can look after two-year-olds. D:it seems to have human feelings.

共用题干When Our Eyes Serve Our StomachOur senses aren't just delivering a strict view of what's going on in the world;they're af-fected by what's going on in our heads. A new study finds that hungry people see food-related words more clearly than people who'ye just eaten.Psychologists have known for decades that what's going on,inside our head affects our senses. For example,poorer children think coins are larger than they are,and hungry people think pictures of food are brighter. Remi Radel of University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis,France,wanted to investi-gate how this happens. Does it happen right away as the brain receives signals from the eyes or a lit-tle later as the brain's high-level thinking processes get involved.Radel recruited 42 students with a normal body mass index. On the day of his or her test,each student was told to arrive at the lab at noon after three or four hours of not eating. Then they were told there was a delay. Some were told to come back in 10 minutes;others were given an hour to get lunch first. So half the students were hungry when they did the ex-periment and the other half had just eaten.For the experiment,the participant looked at a computer screen. One by one,80 words flashed on the screen for about 1/300th of a second each. They flashed at so small a size thatthe students could only consciously perceive. A quarter of the words were food-related. After each word,each person was asked how bright the word was and asked to choose which of two words they'd seen一a food-related word like cake or a neutral word like boat. Each word ap-peared too briefly for the participant to really read it.Hungry people saw the food-related words as brighter and were better at identifying food-related words. Because the word appeared too quickly for them to be reliably seen,this means that the difference is in perception,not in thinking processes,Radel says.“This is something great to me. Humans can really perceive what they need or what they strive for. From the experiment,I know that our brain can really be at the disposal of our mo-tives and needs,”Radel says.There was a delay in Radel's experiment because_______.A: he needed more students to joinB: he didn't prepare enough food for the 42 studentsC: he wanted two groups of participants,hungry and non-hungryD: he didn't want to have the experiment at noon

Michael is now merely a good friend,A:largely B:barely C:just D:rarely

共用题干Learn about Light1 .Ancient civilizations were amazed by the existence of light for thousands of years. The Greek philosophers believed that light was made up of countless,tiny particles that enter the human eye and create what we call vision. However,Empedocles and a Dutch scientist named Christian Huygens believed that light was like a wave. According to them,light spread out and travelled like a straight line. This theory was accepted during the 19th century.2 .In 1905,Albert Einstein published a research paper in which he explained what is re-ferred to as the photoelectric effect. This theory explains that particles make up light.The particles Einstein was referring to are weightless bundles(束)of electromagnetic(电磁)energy called photons(光子).Today,scientists agree that light has a dual(二重)nature一it is part particle and part wave. It is a form of energy that allows us to see things around us.3 .Things that give off light are known as sources of light. During the day,the primary source of light is the sun. Other sources of light include stars,flames,flashlights,street lamps and glowing gases in glass tube.4 .When we draw the way light travels we always use straight lines. This is because nor-mally light rays travel in a straight line. However,there are some instances that can change the path and even the nature of light. They are reflection,absorption,interference(干扰), etc.5 .Physicists have attempted to measure the speed of light since the early times. In 1849, Hippolyte Fizeau conducted an experiment by directing a beam of light to a mirror located kilometers away and placed a rotating cogwheel(旋转齿轮)between the beam and the mirror. From the rate of rotation of the wheel,number of wheel's teeth and distance of the mirror,he was able to calculate that the speed of light is 313 million meters per second. In a vacuum(真空),however,the speed of light is 299,792,458 meters per second. This is about a million times faster than the speed of an airplane.Some instances such as reflection and absorption can change______.A: sources of lightB: the speed of lightC: the path of lightD: a straight lineE: a beam of lightF: a form of energy

共用题干What is the Coolest Gas in the Universe?What is the coldest air temperature ever recorded on Earth?Where was this low temperature recorded ?The coldest recorded temperature on Earth was -91℃, which_____ (51) in Antarctica(南极洲) in 1983.We encounter an interesting situation when we discuss temperatures in_________(52).Temperatures in Earth orbit(轨道)actually range from about +120℃ to -120℃. The temperature depends upon ______(53)you are in direct sunlight or in shade.Obviously,-120℃ is colder than our body can ________ (54)endure.The space temperatures just discussed affect only our area of the solar________(55).Obviously,it is hotter closer to the Sun and colder as we travel__________(56)from the Sun,Scientigtg egtimate tern- peratures at Pluto are about -210℃.How cold is the lowest estimated temperature in the entire universe?Again,it depends upon your_________(57).We are taught it is supposedly__________(58)to have atemperature below absolute zero,which is-273℃,at which atoms do not move.Two scientists,Cornell and Wieman,have successfully______(59)down a gas to a temperature barely above absolute zero. They won a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001 for their work一not a discovery in this case.Why is the two scientists'work so important to science?In the 1920s,Satyendra Nath Bose was studying an interesting_______(60)about special light par-tidles(微粒)we now call photons(光子).Bose had trouble __________(61)other scientists to believe his theory,so he contacted Albert Einstein. Einstein’s calculations helped him theorize that atoms_______(62) behave as Bose thought一but only at very cold temperatures.Scientists have also discovered that ultra-cold(超冷)atoms can help them make the world'S atomic clocks even__________(63)accurate.These clocks are so accurate today they would oniy lose one second _________ (64)six million years!Such accuracy will help us travel in space because digtanee is velocity(速度)times time( d=vt).With the long distances involved in space _______(65),we need to know time as accurately as possibie to get accurate distance._________(53)A:whetherB:whereC:whatD:when

共用题干第一篇What Does GMO Free Mean?Genetically modified organisms(GMOs)in food are concern for a number of consumers who are worried about the impact that GMOs may have on their health.As a result,many companies in the late 1990s began to apply the GMO free label,indicating that their food does not contain genetically modified organisms.A number of nations legislate labeling,and in Europe,food must be labeled to indicate whether or not it contains GMOs.In the United States,however,GMO free labeling is purely voluntary and not regulated by any governmental body or organization.Since it is not regulated,there has been some question about the validity of the GMO free label in the US.A number of organizations have pressured the Food and Drug Administration(FDA),as well as the United States Department of Agriculture(USDA),to enact legislation governing food labeling in regards to GMOs.Many food activists want a label that is standardized,so that consumers who are concerned about this issue can be assured about the GMO content of products they purchase.Most US consumers have foods containing GMOs in their home.The majority of corn and soybeans grown in the US have been modified,as have several other crops.Some research indicates that many processed foods contain GMO ingredients,so for consumers who are concerned about this issue,GMO free labeling would be helpful.For consumers who want to eat natural,organic foods,knowing that the products they buy are GMO free is often very important. Although there is no federal labeling program in the US,some organic farmers and natural food producers have chosen to start their own certification programs.Getting certified through such programs can be very difficult,but many producers believe consumers will be willing to pay extra for the verification.The harmful nature of GMOs has been questioned,especially by commercial agriculture producers and seed providers.No scientific evidence has been found to suggest that genetic modification of crops is harmful to humans. Some consumers feel that it is important to be able to make conscious choices about what they eat,however,and want the ability to choose GMO free foods if they so desire.Some studies suggest that GMOs may be harmful to agriculture,with cloned genetically modified species harming overall biological diversity and modified genes finding their way into wild plants and non-modified crops.This is especially true in the case of corn,where GMO contamination became a major issue in the 1990s.Other research,however,indicates that genetically modified crops can be of benefit to the environment. Plants designed to be resistant to herbicides(除草剂)and pesticides (杀虫剂),for example,have been seen to reduce the amount of these chemicals used by farmers on both GM and non-modified crops.A number of organizations in America have pressured the Food and Drug Administration(FDA) to______.A: ban foods containing GMOsB:punish commercial agriculture producers and seed providersC:enact legislation governing food labeling in regards to GMOsD:abolish legislation governing food labeling in regards to GMOs

共用题干Citizen ScientistsUnderstanding how nature responds to climate change will require monitoring key life cycle events-flowering,the appearance of leaves,the first frog calls of the spring-all around the world.But ecologists can't be______(51)so they are turning to non-scientists,sometimes called citizen scientists,for help.Climate scientists are not present everywhere.______(52)there are so many places in the world and not enough scientists to observe all of them,they are asking for your help in_______(53)signs of climate change across the world.The citizen scientist movement encourages______(54)people to observe a very specific research interest-birds,trees,flowers budding,etc-and send their observations______(55)a giant database to be observed by professional scientists.This helps a small number of scientists track a______(56)amount of data that they would never be able to gather on their own.______(57)like citizen journalists helping large publications cover a hyper-local beat,citizen scientists are ready for the conditions where they live.______(58)that's needed to become one is a few minutes each day or each week to gather data and_______(59)it in.A group of scientists and educators launched an organization last year______(60) the NationalPhenology(生物气候学)Network."Phenology" is what scientists call the study of the timing of events in nature.One of the group's first efforts relies on scientists and non-scientists______(61)to collect data about plant flowering and leafing every year.The program,called Project BudBurst,collects life cycle______(62)on a variety of common plants from across the United States.People participating in the project-which is______(63)to everyone-record their observations on the Project BudBurst website."People don't______(64)to be plant experts-they just have to look around and see what's in their neighborhood,"says Jennifer Scheartz,an education consultant with the project."As we collect this data,we'11 be able to make an'estimate of______(65)plants and communities of plants and animals will respond as the climate changes."_________62A:points B:wonders C:data D:interests

共用题干The iPad1 The iPad is a tablet computer(平板电脑)designed and developed by Apple. It is par-ticularly marketed as a platform for audio and visual media such as books,periodicals(期刊),movies,music,and games,as well as web content. At about 1 .5 pounds(680 grams), its size and weight are between those of most contemporary smartphones and laptop comput-ers.Apple released the iPad in April 2010,and sold 3 million of the devices in 80 days.2 The iPad runs the same operating system as iPod Touch and iPhone. It can run its own applications as well as ones developed for iPhone. Without modification,it will only run pro-grams approved by Apple and distributed via its online store.3 Like iPhone and iPod Touch,the iPad is controlled by a multitouch display一a break from most previous tablet computers, which uses a pressure-triggered stylus(触控笔).The iPad uses a Wi-Fi data connection to browse(浏览)the Internet, load and stream media, and install software. Some models also have a 3G wireless data connection which can connect to GSM 3G data networks. The devices is managed and synchronized(同步)by iTunes on a per-sonal computer via USB cable.4 An iPad has different features and applications one can use to execute different and in-teresting things. There are lots of iPad applications that the owner can use to enhance the way they communicate. Some of these are how to use social networking sites and other online options.One of the most common uses is for e-mail services. iPad applications like Markdown Mail allow the adoption of specific and particular options. They enable the owner to personal-ize their email accounts.5 While the iPad is mostly used by consumers it also has been taken up by business us-ers. Some companies are adopting iPads in their business offices by distributing or making available iPads to employees.Examples of uses in the workplace include lawyers responding to clients,medical professionals accessing health records during patient exams,and manag-ers approving employee requests.A survey by Frost Sullivan shows that iPad usage in work-places is linked to the goals of increased employees productivity,reduced paperwork,and in-creased revenue.Paragraph 3______A: Online StoresB: Differences from iPhoneC: Display and Data ConnectionD: Business UsageE: Features and ApplicationsF: Operating System

共用题干Wide World of RobotsEngineers who build and program robots have fascinating jobs. These researchers tinker(修补)with ma- chines in the lab and write computer software to control these devices."They're the best toys out there," says Howie Choset at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh.Choset is a roboticist,a person who designs, builds or programs robots.When Choset was a kid,he was interested in anything that moved一cars,trains,animals.He put motors on Tinkertoy cars to make them move.Later,in high school,he built mobile robots similar to small cars,Hoping to continue working on robots,he studied computer science in college.But when he got to graduate school at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena,Choset’。labmates were working on something even cooler than remotely controlled cars:robotic snakes.Some robots can move only forward, hackward, left and right. But snakes can twist(扭曲)in many directions and travel over a lot of different types of terrain(地形)."Snakes are far more interesting than the cars,"Choset concluded.After he started working at Carnegie Mellon,Choset and his colleagues there began developing their own snake robots.Choset's team programmed robots to perform the same movements as real snakes,such as sliding and inching forward.The robot、also moved in ways that snakes usually don't,such as rolling. Choset’s snake robots could crawl(爬行)through the grass,swini in a pond and even climb a flagpole.But Choset wondered if his snakes might be useful for medicine as well.For some heart surgeries,the doctor has to open a patient's chest,cutting through the breastbone.Recovering from these surgeries can be very painful.What if the doctor could perform the operation by instead making a small hole in the body and sending in a thin robotic snake?Choset teamed up with Marco Zenati,a heart surgeon now at Harvard Medical School,to investigate theidea.Zenati practiced using the robot on a plastic model of the chest and they tested the robot in pigs. A company caikd Medrobotics in Boston is now adapting the technology for g urgerie9 on people-Even after 15 years of working with his team’s creations,"I still don't get bored of watching the motionof my robots,"Clioset says.Choset began to build robots in high school.A:RightB:WrongC:Not mentioned

You will be meeting her presently.A:shortly B:currentlyC:lately D:probably

共用题干About eight million school-age children are home alone after school.These are the hours when the number of violent crimes peaks and when youths are most likely to experiment with alco- hol,tobacco,and drugs. Many older children take care of themselves after school for an hour or two until a parent comes home,and research suggests that some of these children are more at risk of poor grades and risky behaviors.Studies have been done to find out what helps to reduce these kinds of risky behaviors among youths .One study of Chicago neighborhoods showed that after-school programs resulted in less vio- lence even in poor neighborhoods.After-school programs can help to reduce crime and violence because they offer activities to children and youths during their out-of-school time.In addition to helping youths make use of af-ter-school hours,after-school programs provide teens with opportunities to develop caring relation-ships with adults.Studies have found that high-quality relationships with parents and other adults, as well as good use of time,are very important for healthy development in youth.After-school programs can also be used for teens who hang out at friends' houses and play basketball when a parent or other responsible adult is at home.The programs can also be helpful for formal after-school activities,including"drop-in"programs that are provided by organizations.Despite the benefits of after-school programs,there are many reasons why some parents do not use them. Programs may be too expensive,of poor quality,or hard to join.Some older children and young teens may refuse to attend programs that seem like they are just child care.Parents may feel uncertain about how much freedom is proper for children and youths who are beyond the tradition-al child care years.However,research supports the effectiveness of these programs in protecting middle school and high school youths from risk and harm. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?A: The grades of those children who are home alone after school are more likely to suffer.B: Parents want to give their children as much as possible freedom.C: The after-school programs help the students to make use of the time after school.D: The after-school programs are effective in protecting middle school and high school youths from risk and harm.

An Essential Scientific ProcessAll life on the earth depends upon green plants. Using sunlight, theplants produce their own food. Then animals feed upon the plants. They take inthe nutrients the plants have made sted. But that’s not all.Sunlight also helps a plant produce oxygen. Some of the oxygen is used by theplant, but a plant usually produces me oxygen than it uses. The excess oxygenis necessary f animals other ganisms to live.The process of changing light into food oxygen is calledphotosynthesis. Besides light energy from the sun, plants also use water carbon dioxide. The water gets to the plant through its roots. The carbondioxide enters the leaves through tiny openings called stomata. The carbondioxide travels to chloplasts, special cells in the bodies of green plants.This is photosynthesis takes place. Chloplasts contain the chlophyllsthat give plants their green col. The chlophylls are the molecules thattrap light energy. The trapped light energy changes water carbon dioxide toproduce oxygen a simple sugar called glucose.Carbon dioxide oxygen move into out of the stomata. Watervap also moves out of the stomata. Me than 90 percent of water a planttakes in through its roots escapes through the stomata. During the daytime, thestomata of most plants are open. This allows carbon dioxide to enter the leavesf photosynthesis. As night falls, carbon dioxide is not needed. The stomataof most plants close. Water loss stops.If photosynthesis ceased, there would be little food other ganicmatter on the earth. Most ganisms would disappear. The earth’s atmospherewould no longer contain oxygen. Photosynthesis is essential f life on ourplanet.  词汇:nutrient n.营养物 ganism n.生物体,有机体carbon dioxide n.二氧化碳chloplast n.叶绿体molecule n.分子vap n.水蒸气oxygen n.氧气 photosynthesis n.光合作用chlophyll n.叶绿素glucose n.葡萄糖cease v.停止  注释:1.Then animals feed upon the plants.动物以植物为食。  练习:2.Which of the following does not move through a plant’s stomata?A.Carbon dioxide. B.Water vap.C.Oxygen. D.Food.

共用题干The History of the Fridge 1 The fridge is considered a necessity.It has been so since the l960s when packaged food first appeared with the label:"store in the refrigerator." 2 In my fridgeless fifties childhood,I was fed well and healthily.The milkman came daily,the grocer, the butcher,the baker,and the ice-cream man delivered two or three times a week.The Sunday meat would last until Wednesday and surplus bread and milk became all kinds of cakes.Nothing was wasted and we were never troubled by rotten food.Thirty years on,food deliveries have ceased,fresh vegetables are almost unobtainable in the country. 3 The invention of the fridge contributed comparatively little to the art of food preservation.A vast variety of well-tried techniques already existed-natural cooling,drying'smoking'salting'sugaring,bottling… 4 What refrigeration did promote was marketing-marketing hardware and electricity,marketing soft drinks,marketing dead bodies of animals around the globe in search of。good price. 5 Consequently,most of the world's fridges are to be found,not in the tropics where they might prove useful,but in the wealthy countries with mild temperatures where they are climatically almost unnecessary.Every winter,millions of fridges hum away continuously and at vast expense,busily maintaining an artificially-cooled space inside an artificially-heated house-while outside,nature provides the desired temperature free of charge. 6 The fridge's effect upon the environment has been evident,while its contribution to human happiness has been insignificant.If you don't believe me,try it yourself.Invest in。food cabinet(橱柜)and turn off your fridge next winter.You may miss the hamburgers but at least you’ll get rid of that terrible hum.The invention of the fridge has not provided______.A:milk,meat,vegetables,etc.were deliveredB:it has promoted the sales of many kinds of commoditiesC:anew,economical way to preserve foodD:most kids like iced soft drinksE:something every housewife needsF:produced by the fridge when it is working

共用题干Mad Scientist Stereotype OutdatedDo people still imagine a physicist as a bearded man in glasses or has the image of the mad scientist changed?The Institute of Physics set out to find out whether the stereotype of a physics boffin (科学家)still exists by conducting a survey on shoppers in London. The people were asked to identify the physicist from a photograph of a line-up of possible suspects.98 percent of those asked got it wrong. The majority of people picked a white male of around 60,wearing glasses and with a white beard.While this stereotype may have been the image of all average physicist fifty years ago,the reality is now very different. Since 1960 the number of young women entering physics has doubled and the average age of a physicist is now 31.The stereotype of the absent-minded scientist has lasted a long time because the media and Hollywood help promote the image of men in white lab coats with glasses sitting by blackboards full of equations(等式)or working with fizzing(嘶嘶响)test tubes. These stereotypes are really damaging to society.Very good school children are put off studying science because they don't see people like themselves on television or in magazines doing science.They simply don't relate to the media's image of the mad scientist.This is one reason why fewer young people are choosing to do science at university. If we want to encourage more young people to study science subjects,we need to change this image of the scientist and make science careers more attractive. But we must also develop children's interest in science.In an attempt to change this negative image,an increasing number of science festivals are being organized.Thousands of people from secondary schools are also encouraged to take part in the international science competitions of which the most popular are the national science Olympiads.Winning national teams then get the opportunity to take part in the International Science Olympiads which are held in a different country every year. These events are all interesting for the young people who take part but they only involve a small proportion of students who are already interested in science.It seems that there is a long way to go before science becomes attractive as subjects like computer studies or fashion and design.The majority of physicists in Britain today are Cambridge graduates.A:Right B:WrongC:Not mentioned

共用题干第一篇A Sunshade(遮阳伞)for the PlanetEven with the best will in the world,reducing our carbon emissions is not going to prevent global warming. It has become clear that even if we take the most strong measures to control emissions, the uncertainties in our climate models still leave open the possibility of extreme warming and rises in sea level. At the same time,resistance by governments and special interest groups makes it quite possible that the actions suggested by climate scientists might not be implemented soon enough.Fortunately,if the worst comes to the worst,scientists still have a few tricks up their sleeves. For the most part they have strongly resisted discussing these options for fear of inviting a sense of complacency that might thwart efforts to tackle the root of the problem. Until now,that is a growing number of researchers are taking a fresh look at large-scale"geoengineering"projects that might be used to counteract global warming."I use the analogy of methadone,"says Stephen Schneider,a climate researcher at Stanford University in California who was among the first to draw attention to global warming."If you have a heroin addict,the correct treatment is hospitalization,and a long rehab. But if they absolutely refuse,methadone is better than heroin."Basically the idea is to apply"sunscreen"to the whole planet. One astronomer has come up with a radical plan to cool Earth:launch trillions of feather-light discs into space,where they would form a vast cloud that would block the sun's rays.It's controversial,but recent studies suggest there are ways to deflect just enough of the sunlight reaching the Earth's surface to counteract the warming produced by the greenhouse effect. Global climate models show that blocking just 1.8 percent of the incident energy in the sun's rays would cancel out the warming effects produced by a doubling of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.That could be crucial,because even the most severe emissions control measures being proposed would leave us with a doubling of carbon dioxide by the end of this century,and that would last for at least a century more.What is Stephen Schneider's idea of preventing global warming?A:To ask governments to take stronger measures.B:To increase the sunlight reaching the Earth.C:To apply sunscreen to the Earth.D:To decrease greenhouse gases.