Power Napping is Good f the I.Q. Today we hear me me about the imptance of getting enoughsleep—about eight hours a night. Sleep can help heal give energy toboth the body the brain. ____1____ It seems almost certain that the thirdof our lives that we spend asleep has a great effect on the two-thirds that weare awake. Sleep affects our emotions, memy, focus, behavi. Studies show that people in developed countries spend less timeasleep me time at wk commuting. Dr. Karine Spiegel, at theUniversity of Chicago, has found that the average length of sleep has gone downfrom nine hours a night in 1910 to seven--a-half hours a night today.However, our bodies cannot function well without enough sleep. ____2____Accding to Canadian scientist Dr. Stanley Cen, every hour of lost sleep at nightcauses us to lose one I.Q. point the next day. F example, when someone getsonly five six hours of sleep each night f a week, the person’s I.Q. couldgo down 15 points me. ____3____ Most sleep experts say that humans need at least eight hours ofsleep every day, but it should be in two stages: a long sleep at night ashter nap in the afternoon. Some companies help their employees follow thisadvice. ____4____ They say this makes the wkers much me efficient. To study sleep deprivation (not getting enough sleep), scientistsuse a test called the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). During the test, aperson stays in a darkened, quiet room during the daytime. Scientists believethat a sleep-deprived person will fall asleep quickly. If it takes ten minutes longer to fall asleep, the person is probably getting enough sleep. Scientists have also found that the time of year seems to affect howmuch sleep we need. ____5____ However, in the summer, people sometimes sleep aslittle as six hours, without having any problems. 词汇： emotion n. 情绪 commuting n. 乘公交车上下班，通勤 I.Q. n. 智商(全称为intelligent quotient) deprivation n. 剥夺，匮乏 Sleep Latency Test n. 睡眠潜伏期 注释： 1.have/has an effect on... 对……有效果的 2.go down from... to...从………降至…… 练习：A.They allow them to “power nap” in the afternoon, if only f 20 minutes.B.Losing just one two hours of sleep a night, over a long period oftime, can cause serious health problems.C.People usually sleep longer in the winter, sometimes as much as 14hours a night.D.People in power are me intelligent because they take naps.E.Medical experts now believe that sleep is even me imptant fhealth than diet exercise.F.That’s why, without enough sleep, a nmally intelligent person may startto have difficulty doing daily tasks.
共用题干Promising Resnlts from Cancer StudyA new experimental vaccine（疫苗）has shown promising results in the fight against lung cancer.In a small Texas-based study,a vaccine developed by scientists at Baylor University Medical Centre in Dallas,USA,cured lung cancer in some patients and slowed the progress of the disease in others.Researchers have reported encouraging findings from this small study.Forty一three patients suffering from lung cancer were involved in these trials.Ten of these patients were in the early stages and thirty-three in tho advanced stages of the disease.They were injected with the vaccine every two weeks for three months,and were carefully monitored for three years.In three of the patients in the advanced stages of cancer,the disease disappeared and in the others,it did not spread for five to twenty-four months.However,no great difference was seen in the patients in the early stages of the illness.This new vaccine uses the patient's own immune system.It is made specifically for each patient and is injected into the arm or leg.It stimulates（刺激）the body's immune system, which then recognizes that the cancer cells are harmful,and attacks and destroys them.The vaccine could be effective against other forms of cancer.It offers great hope for the treatment of cancer in general,although further studies are needed before such treatment can be widely used.All the patients were from Dallas.A:RightB:WrongC:Not mentioned
He is but a child.A: probably B: notC: onlyD: hardly
共用题干The majority of people,about nine out of ten,are right-handed.Not until recently,people who were left-handed were considered__________(51),and once children showed this tendency they were forced to use their right hands. Today left-handedness is generally_________(52),but it is still a disadvantage in a world________(53)most people are right-handed.For example,most tools and implements are still designed for right-handed people.In sports,__________(54)contrast,doing things with the left hand or foot,is often an advantage.Throwing,kicking,punching or batting from the"wrong"side may result_________(55)throwing off many opponents who are more accustomed to dealing with the_________(56)of players who are right-handed.This is why,in many ________(57)at a professional level,a higher proportion of players are left-handed than in the population as a whole.The word"right"in many languages means"correct"or is_________(58)with lawfulness, whereas the words associated__________(59)"left",such as"sinister",generally have_________ (60)associations.Moreover,among a number of primitive peoples,there is_________(61)close association between death and the left hand.In the past,in most Western societies,children were often forced to use their right hands,especially to write with.In some cases the left hand was_________(62)behind the child's back so that it could not be used.If,in the future,they are allowed to choose,_________(63)will certainly be more left handers,and probably_________(64)people with minor psychological disturbances as a result of being forced to use their_________(65)hand._________(59)A:by B:withC:to D:at
共用题干The majority of people,about nine out of ten,are right-handed.Not until recently,people who were left-handed were considered__________(51),and once children showed this tendency they were forced to use their right hands. Today left-handedness is generally_________(52),but it is still a disadvantage in a world________(53)most people are right-handed.For example,most tools and implements are still designed for right-handed people.In sports,__________(54)contrast,doing things with the left hand or foot,is often an advantage.Throwing,kicking,punching or batting from the"wrong"side may result_________(55)throwing off many opponents who are more accustomed to dealing with the_________(56)of players who are right-handed.This is why,in many ________(57)at a professional level,a higher proportion of players are left-handed than in the population as a whole.The word"right"in many languages means"correct"or is_________(58)with lawfulness, whereas the words associated__________(59)"left",such as"sinister",generally have_________ (60)associations.Moreover,among a number of primitive peoples,there is_________(61)close association between death and the left hand.In the past,in most Western societies,children were often forced to use their right hands,especially to write with.In some cases the left hand was_________(62)behind the child's back so that it could not be used.If,in the future,they are allowed to choose,_________(63)will certainly be more left handers,and probably_________(64)people with minor psychological disturbances as a result of being forced to use their_________(65)hand._________(57)A:games B:hobbiesC:activities D:rounds
The dentist has decided to take out the girl's bad tooth.A:.digB:drawC:pullD:extract
共用题干Warm People Likely to Keep Cold at BayStaying positive through the cold season could be your best defense against getting ill,new study findings suggest.In an experiment that exposed healthy volunteers to a cold or flu virus,researchers found that people with a generally sunny disposition were less likely to fall ill.The findings,published in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine,build on evidence that a"positive emotional style"can help ward off the common cold and other illnesses.Researchers believe the reasons may be both objective as in happiness boosting immune function and subjective as in happy people being less troubled by a scratchy throat or runny nose?"People with a positive emotional style may have different immune responses to the virus,"explained lead study author Dr Sheldon Cohen of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh."And when they do get a cold,they may interpret their illness as being less severe."Cohen and his colleagues had found in a previous study that happier people seemed less susceptible to catching a cold,but some questions remained as to whether the emotional trait itself had the effect.For the new study,the researchers had 193 healthy adults complete standard measures of personality traits,self-perceived health and emotional"style".Those who tended to be happy,energetic and easy-going were judged as having a positive emotional style,while those who were often unhappy,tense and hostile had a negative style.The researchers gave them nasal drops containing either a cold virus or a particular flu virus.Over the next six days,the volunteers reported on any aches,pains,sneezing or congestion they had,while the researchers collected objective data,like daily mucus production.Cohen and his colleagues found that based on objective measures of nasal woes,happy people were less likely to develop a cold.The researchers chose 193 adults who had a negative style for the study.A:Right B:Wrong C:Not mentioned
共用题干More About Alzheimer 's DiseaseScientists have developed skin tests that may be used in the future to identify people with Alzheimer's disease and may ultimately allow physicians to predict who is at risk of getting this neurological（神经病学的）disorder.The only current means of diagnosing the disease in a living patient is a long and expensive series of tests that eliminate every other cause of dementia. "Since Alois Alzheimer described the disease nearly a century ago,people have been trying to find a way to accurately diagnose it in its early stages,"said Patricia Grady,acting director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda,Maryland."This discovery,if confirmed,could prove a big step forward in our efforts to deal with and understand the disease."Alzheimer's is the single greatest cause of mental deterioration in older people,affecting between 2.5 million and 4 million people in the United States alone.The devastating disorder gradually destroys memory and the ability to function,and eventually causes death.There is currently no known treatment for the disease.Researchers discovered that the skin cells of Alzheimer’s patients have defects that interfere with their ability to regulate the flow of potassium in and out of the cells.The fact that the cell defects are present in the skin suggests that Alzheimer's results from physiological changes throughout the body,and that dementia may be the first noticeable effect of these changes as the defects affect the cells in the brain,scientists said.The flow of potassium is especially critical in cells responsible for memory formation.The scientists also found two other defects that affect the cells'supply of calcium,another critical element.One test developed by researches calls for growing skin cells in a laboratory culture and then testing them with an electrical detector to determine if the microscopic tunnels that govern the flow of potassium are open.Open potassium channels create a unique electrical signature.A spokesman for the Alzheimer's Association said that if the validity of the diagnostic test can be proven it would be an important development,but he cautioned that other promising tests for Alzheimer's have been disappointing.The newly developed skin tests may be used in the future to allow doctors to______.A:cure those with Alzheimer's diseaseB:discover the cause of Alzheimer's diseaseC:predict who might get Alzheimer's diseaseD:find the consequences of Alzheimer's disease
Recent pressure at work may account for his behavior.A: explainB: changeC: influenceD: embody
共用题干The World's Best-Selling MedicineSince ancient times,people all over the world have used willow to stop pain. The willow tree contains salicylic acid（水杨酸）.This stops pain, but there is one problem. Salicylic acid also hurts the stomach. In 1853,a French scientist made a mixture from willow that did not hurt the stomach.However,his mixture was difficult to make,and he did not try to produce or sell it.In 1897,in Germany,Felix Hoffmann also made a mixture with salicylic acid. He tried it himself first and then gave it to his father because his father was old and in a lot of pain.His father's pain went away,and the mixture did not hurt his stomach.Hoffmann worked for Bayer,a German company. He showed his new drug to his manager,who tested the drug and found that it worked well.Bayer decided to make the drug.They called it aspirin and put the Bayer name on every pill.Aspirin was an immediate success. Almost everyone has pain of some kind,so aspirin answered a true need. Aspirin was cheap,easy to take,and effective. It also lowered fevers.Aspirin was a wonder drug.At first,Bayer sold the drug through doctors,who then sold it to their patients. In 1915,the company started to sell aspirin in drugstores.In the United States,Bayer had a patent（专利权）on the drug. Other companies could make similar products and sell them in other countries,but only bayer could make and sell aspirin in the United States.In time,Bayer could no longer own the name aspirin in the United States. Other companies could make it there,too.However,Bayer aspirin was the most well known,and for many years,it was the market leader.By the 1950s,new painkillers were on the market. Aspirin was no longer the only way to treat pain and reduce fever. Bayer and other companies looked for other drugs to make.However,in the l970s they got a surprise. Doctors noticed that patients who were taking aspirin had fewer heart attacks than other people. A British researcher named John Vane found the reason aspirin helped to prevent heart attacks.In 1982,he won the Nobel prize for his research. Doctors started to tell some of their patients to take aspirin every day to prevent heart attacks.It has made life better for the many people who take it. It has also made a lot of mon-ey for companies like Bayer that produce and sell it!What has happened to aspirin since new painkillers came on the market?A: Companies have stopped selling it.B: It has become the best-selling painkiller.C: Its new use has been discovered.D: Doctors have sold it to patients.
I think $7 a drink is a bit steep，don't you?A:tightB:lowC:cheapD:high
共用题干What Should I Say to the Person Who Has Cancer?It is normal to feel that you don't know what to say to someone who has cancer.You might only know the person casually,or you may have worked______(1)or lived near each other for many years and have a closer relationship.The most important ___________(2)you can do is to acknowledge the situation in some way一whatever is most comfortable for you．You can show interest and concern,you can expressencouragement,or you_________(3)offer support. Sometimes the simplestexpressions of concern are the______(4)meaningful,While it is good to be encouraging,it is also important_________(5)to show false optimism or to tell the person with cancer to always have a positive attitude.Doing _________(6)things may discount their fears,concerns,or sad feelings.It is alsotempting to say that you know __________(7)the person feels.While you may know thisis a difficult time,no one can know exactly how the person with_______(8)feels.Humor can be an important way________(9)coping.It is also another source ofsupport and encouragement.Let the person with cancer________(10)the lead; it ishealthy if they find something funny about a side effect,like hair loss or increased appetite, and you can certainly join_________(11)in a good laugh.This can be a great way to relieve stress and to take a break from the_________(12)serious nature of the situation.When the person with cancer looks good, let them know! Refrain（忍住） _____(13)comments when their appearance isn't as good,such as"You're looking pale"or"You've lost weight".Cancer and its treatment can be very unpredictable. Be prepared for good days and bad________(14).Refrain from telling the person with cancer stories about family members or friends who have had cancer. Everyone is different,and these stories may not be helpful.Instead,it is better simply to tell them you know________(15)about cancer because you've been through it with someone else._________(4) A:more B:least C:less D:most
共用题干Dangers Await Babies with AltitudeWomen who live in the world's highest communities tend to give birth to underweight babies, a new study suggests.These babies may grow into adults with a high risk of heart disease and strokes.Research has hinted that newborns in mountain communities are lighter than average.But it wasn't clear whether this is due to reduced oxygen levels at high altitude or because their mothers are under-nourished—many people who live at high altitudes are relatively poor compared witf those living lower down.To find out more,Dino Giussani and his team at Cambridge University studied the records of 400 births in Bolivia during 1997 and 1998.The babies were born in both rich and poor areas of two cities:La Paz and Santa Cruz.La Paz is the highest city in the world,at 3 .65 kilometers above sea level,while Santa Cruz is much lower,at 0 .44 kilometers.Sure enough,Giussani found that the average birthweight of babies in La Paz was significantly lower than in Santa Cruz.This was true in both high and low-income families.Even babies borr to poor families in Santa Cruz were heavier on average than babies born to wealthy families in lofty La Paz.“We were very surprised by this result,”says Giussani.The results suggest that babies born at high altitude are deprived of oxygen before birth. “This may trigger the release or suppression of hormones that regulate growth of the unborn child,”says Giussani.His team also found that high-altitude babies tended to have relatively larger heads compared with their bodies.This is probably because a fetus starved of oxygen will send oxygenated blood to the brain in preference to the rest of the body.Giussani wants to find out if such babies have a higher risk of disease in later life.People born in La Paz might be prone to heart trouble in adulthood,for example.Low birthweight is a risk factor for coronary heart disease .And newborns with a high ratio of head size to body weight are often predisposed to high blood pressure and strokes in later life.A:.the finding was unexpectedB:.he was very tiredC:.the study took longer than expectedD:.he was surprised to find low-income families in La Paz
All the flats in the building had the same layout.A:.colorB: size C: functionD: arrangement
共用题干Migrant WorkersIn the past twenty years,there has been an increasing tendency for workers to move from one country to another._________(51)some newly independent countries have understandably restricted most jobs to local people,others have attracted and welcomed migrant workers.This is particularly the case in the MiddleEast, _______(52)increased oil incomes have enabled many countries to __________(53)outsiders to im- prove local facilities.__________(54)the Middle East has attracted oil-workers from the USA and Europe.It has brought in construction workers and technicians from many countries,________(55)South Korea and Japan.In view of the difficult living and working conditions in the Middle East,it is not___________(56)that the pay is high to attract suitable workers.Many engineers and technicians can earn at least___________(57) 1money in the Middle East as they can in their own country,and this is a major attraction.An allied benefit is the low taxation or complete lack of it.This increases the net amount of pay received by visiting workers and is very popular with them.Sometimes a disadvantage has a compensating advantage.__________(58),the difficult living conditions often lead to increased friendship when workers have to depend on each other____________(59)safety and com-fort. ___________(60),many migrant workers can save large sums of money partly _________(61)the lack of entertainment facilities.The work is often complex and full of problems but this merely presents greaterchallenge to engineers who prefer to find solutions__________(62)problems rather than do routine work intheir home country.One major problem which___________(63)migrant workers in the Middle East is that their jobs are tem- porary ones.They are nearly always on contract,so it is not easy for them to plan ahead with great confi- dence.This is to be expected since no country welcomes a large number of foreign workers as permanent residents.____________(64),migrant workers accept this disadvantage,along with others,because of the ___________(65)financial benefits which they receive._________(58)A:SimilarlyB:As a resultC:For exampleD:Anyway