2212高等教育自学考试冲刺练习(含答案)

单选题
波德莱尔的《恶之花》最能体现的艺术倾向是()
A

以丑为美

B

崇美抑丑

C

美丑不分

D

无美无丑


正确答案: B
解析: 暂无解析

理解丑的美学意义?


正确答案: 丑是美的对立面,从而能以丑衬美。它和美相互依存,相互斗争,又相互转化。没有丑,就不可能有美。
其次,世界的发展有待于丑的刺激。恶和丑是刺激人们前进的一种重要动力。
再次,审丑历来都是人们审美活动的一个重要方面,历来的文学艺术都有表现奇丑怪异的杰作。
最后,现实生活中的丑,经过艺术家的心灵点化,转化成艺术中的美,即“花丑为美”,进而成为抨击丑的巨大的艺术力量。

波德莱尔的《恶之花》最能体现的艺术倾向是()

A以丑为美

B崇美抑丑

C美丑不分

D无美无丑


A

多选题
罗兰克兹对丑的研究的贡献是()
A

提出丑的美学

B

丑仅仅陪衬美

C

艺术可以”理想化“丑

D

顾及到艺术表现丑的效果即消除丑的不快之感

E

艺术可以美化丑


正确答案: B,D
解析: 暂无解析

《二丑艺术》中谈的是戏曲中“二花脸”艺术。( )

此题为判断题(对,错)。


参考答案:错误

理解丑是近代精神的产物?


正确答案: ⑴近代自然科学发达,一方面打破了上帝创世的神话,另一方面也打破了理性万能的看法。人是从动物发展起来的,他身上有许多动物的、也就是非理性的东西。恶并不完全来自于外界,人自身就自有恶的根源,人的本质力量不一定都是美的,他有丑的一方面。
⑵19世纪,20世纪都是人类遭灾遭难的时代。发动战争,人们不能不感到空虚、恐惧和荒唐,就是在这种价值观念转变的情况下,人们内心传统的美的殿堂遭到摧毁,而且把丑当作新的桅杆树立起来。
⑶20世纪后,工业化的西方社会,出现了种种的畸形和矛盾:一方面,生产高度丰富化、社会化;另一方面,生活却高度个人化、孤独化,人与人之间,老死不相往来,就宁愿追求丑。

通过艺术的“化丑为美”,原本丑的事物就获得了美的属性。


正确答案:错误

梁启超说:“艺术的陶冶可以将情感善的方面尽量发挥,把邪恶的丑的方面渐渐压服淘汰下去。”对此不正确的理解是()

A艺术可以扬善抑恶

B美育是从情感的角度进行的

C艺术是无功利的

D艺术有助于推动道德的形式


C

罗兰克兹对丑的研究的贡献是()

A提出丑的美学

B丑仅仅陪衬美

C艺术可以”理想化“丑

D顾及到艺术表现丑的效果即消除丑的不快之感

E艺术可以美化丑


A,C,D

单选题
梁启超说:“艺术的陶冶可以将情感善的方面尽量发挥,把邪恶的丑的方面渐渐压服淘汰下去。”对此不正确的理解是()
A

艺术可以扬善抑恶

B

美育是从情感的角度进行的

C

艺术是无功利的

D

艺术有助于推动道德的形式


正确答案: D
解析: 暂无解析

判断题
通过艺术的“化丑为美”,原本丑的事物就获得了美的属性。
A

B


正确答案:
解析: 艺术的“化丑为美”是运用符号把丑变为审美对象,赋予它审美价值,但丑的事物其自身属性并未改变。

判断题
生活中的“丑”经过艺术家的能动创造而具有了艺术美。
A

B


正确答案:
解析: 暂无解析

原始艺术中没有丑的形象。()

此题为判断题(对,错)。


正确答案:×

生活中的“丑”经过艺术家的能动创造而具有了艺术美。

A

B



结合西方美学史上关于“丑”的论述,谈谈你对“丑”的理解。


参考答案:如果不是在普罗提诺时代,至少也是在浪漫主义时期丑就在叩击着美学的大门,浪漫主义把丑带进了艺术,从此丑在艺术中越来越占据着重要的地位;于是美不在只是单纯的形式美, 不积是对称、和谐、多样统一; 美变化多端了,变的赋予个性特征,美的概念丰富和深化了。丑在最终成为审美概念下与美对等的一个范畴之后,它与美的变换、交织又产生出崇高、悲、喜等,丑的问题愈发重要。因此近代德国美学家曾郑重提请人们注意丑的问题在美学上的极端重要性。事实上,关于丑的本质,丑与其他审美范畴的关系以及丑在艺术中的表现等,一直就是西方美学家们谈论的话题之一 , 不过随着艺术实践的发展丑的问题在近代更加突出了。

倡导“心理距离说”的美学家是()

A康德

B席勒

C布洛

D叔本华


C

单选题
我国著名美学家蒋孔阳提出要从“审美关系’’出发来研究美学问题的著作是()
A

《美学讲演录》

B

《美学新论》

C

《美学新解》

D

《实验美学》


正确答案: B
解析: 暂无解析

倡导“自下而上”研究美学方法的美学家是黑格尔。()

此题为判断题(对,错)。


参考答案:错误

问答题
中国当代美学家对于美学研究的对象有哪四种不同的看法?

正确答案: (1)美学研究的对象应当是美以及美的规律;
(2)美学是艺术哲学,因此其研究对象是艺术;
(3)美学研究的对象是美感经验,美学应以美感经验为中心去研究美和艺术。
(4)美学研究的对象是人对现实的审美关系。
解析: 暂无解析

认为美学是研究审美关系的当代中国美学家是()

A朱光潜

B宗白华

C蒋孔阳

D李泽厚


C

在西方的喜剧理论中,倡导“心理能量的节省说”的美学家是()。

A霍布斯

B康德

C柏格森

D弗洛伊德


A

我国著名美学家蒋孔阳提出要从“审美关系’’出发来研究美学问题的著作是()

A《美学讲演录》

B《美学新论》

C《美学新解》

D《实验美学》


B

提出“自下而上”美学研究方法的是德国心理学家().

  • A、席勒
  • B、叔本华
  • C、费希纳
  • D、狄尔泰

正确答案:C

单选题
在西方的喜剧理论中,倡导“心理能量的节省说”的美学家是()。
A

霍布斯

B

康德

C

柏格森

D

弗洛伊德


正确答案: C
解析: 暂无解析

在美学思想上,第一次将历史的方法和逻辑的方法运用于美学研究,并提出了艺术消亡的观点的美学家是():

A.康德

B.黑格尔

C.马克思

D.席勒


参考答案:B

倡导生物本能说的美学家是()

A达尔文

B弗洛伊德

C博克

D席勒

E弗雷泽


A,B,C

多选题
倡导生物本能说的美学家是()
A

达尔文

B

弗洛伊德

C

博克

D

席勒

E

弗雷泽


正确答案: B,A
解析: 暂无解析

在西方的喜剧理论中,倡导“预期失望说”的美学家是()

A.康德

B.柏格森

C.霍布斯

D.弗洛伊德


参考答案:A

中国当代美学家对于美学研究的对象有哪四种不同的看法?
(1)美学研究的对象应当是美以及美的规律;
(2)美学是艺术哲学,因此其研究对象是艺术;
(3)美学研究的对象是美感经验,美学应以美感经验为中心去研究美和艺术。
(4)美学研究的对象是人对现实的审美关系。

单选题
倡导“心理距离说”的美学家是()
A

康德

B

席勒

C

布洛

D

叔本华


正确答案: D
解析: 暂无解析

C

American cities are similar to other cities around the world; In every country. Cities reflect the values of the culture. American cities are changing, just as American society is changing.

After Wolld Wa Ⅱ,the population of most large American cities decreased; bowever. The populaton In omthe Sun Belt cities increased. Los Angeles and Houston are eitit where populatfon shife(转移)to and from the oity reflect the changing values of Amorican society. In the late 1940s and early 1950s,city residents(居民)became wealthier. They had more children so they needed more space, They moved out of their apartments in the city to buy their own homes. They bought houses in the suburbs(郊区).

Now things are changing. The children of the people who left the cities in the 1950s are now adults. Many, unlike their parents, want to live in the cities. They continue to move to Sun Belt cities and older ones of the Northeast and Midwest. Many young professionals are moving back into city. They prefer the city to the burbs because their jobs are there; or they jus enjoy the excitement and possibii that the city offers.

his people shift is bringing problems as well as benefits. Countless poot people must leave their apartments in the city because the owners want to sell the buildings or make apartments for sale instead of for rent. In the 1950s, many poor people did not have enough money to move to the suburbs; now many of these same people do not have enough money to stay in the cities.

Only a few years ago, people though that the older American cities were dying. Some city residents now see a bright, new fiture, Others see only problems and comfiels the thing is sure many dying cities are alive again.

64. What does the author think of cities all over the world?

A. They are alive.

B. They are hopeless.

C. They are similar.

D. They are different.


正确答案:C

The public transport system in many cities in the world () by the local authority.

A、is still ran

B、are still run

C、is still run


参考答案:C

单选题
In the fifties last century many new cities()in the desert
A

bring up

B

make up

C

grew up

D

build up


正确答案: B
解析: 暂无解析

Many cities have restricted smoking in public places.

A:allowed
B:kept
C:limited
D:stopped

答案:C
解析:
这句话的意思是:许多城市已限制在公共场合抽烟。句中“restrict”意为“限制”。四个 选项中A项意为“允许”;B项意为“(使)保持”;C项意为“限制”;D项意为“停止”。因此只有 C项最为合适。

In China ,the number of cities increasing_________ development is recognized across the world.

A.where

B. which

C. whose

D.that


正确答案:C

There are many cities()very fast.

Aexpand

Bwhich expand

Cwhich expanding

Dto expand


B

The author mentions big cities such as Tokyo, Singapore and Paris______.

A. to show that city people all over the world have a lot in common

B. to let his readers be aware that they are some of the world's biggest cities

C. to illustrate their difference from American cities

D. because they are some of the cities that attract visitors most


正确答案:A

44.答案为A  从第三段第一句可知国际上的大城市有很多共同之处。A正确。

单选题
62  A  continents     B  cities         C  world          D  universe
A

A

B

B

C

C

D

C


正确答案: C
解析:

根据下面资料,回答
Today, people all over the world are moving out of small villages in the country to go and live in big, noisy cities. They are moving from the peaceful hills, mountains, fields, rivers and streams of the countryside to the busy world of streets, buildings, traffic and crowds. This movement from rural areas to urban areas has been going on for over two hundred years.
In many countries, the main reason why people come to live in towns and cities is work. After one or two large factories have been built in or near a town, people come to find work, and soon an industrial area begins to grow. There is usually a residential area nearby, where the factory workers can live. The families of these workers need schools, hospitals and shops, so more people come to live in the area to provide these services and a city grows.
In every major city in the world, there is a business district where the big companies have their main offices. In the United States, this area is usually in the city centre. It is here that you can see the huge skyscraper office blocks. The people who work here often travel a long way to work each day. Many of them live in the suburbs of the city, far away from the industrial area and the city centre. Some suburbs are very pleasant, with nice houses and big gardens. There are usually parks for children to play in and large department stores where you can buy all you need.
But what is the future of the big cities? Will they continue to get bigger? Perhaps not. Some major cities have actually become smaller in the last ten years, and it is quite possible that one day we will see people moving out of the major cities and back into smaller towns and villages.
In a residential area, you can see ____________.

A.rows of houses, schools and shops
B.many offices and factories
C.a lot of factories and farms
D.many houses with offices and factories

答案:A
解析:
细节题。由第二段最后两句“There is usually a residential area nearby,where the factory workers can live.The families of these workers need schools,hospitals and shops,so more people come to live in the area to provide these services and a city grows”可知答案为A。

单选题
How many cities are included in the package tour?
A

Three

B

Five

C

Six

D

Eight


正确答案: D
解析:
根据信件中的第1段第3句book that attractive package tour to three southern cities in Italy可知包含了3个城市。故选A。

Many young people are drawn to big cities by their good opportunities.

A:transported
B:pushed
C:attracted
D:immigrated

答案:C
解析:
许多年轻人被大城市的机会吸引而来。transport“运输”,如:transport food to flood-stricken areas运食物到受洪水侵袭的地区。push“驱使”,如: Don't push me for an answer.别逼我给出答案。attract“吸引”,如:I am attracted to the amazing view.我被美景所吸引。immigrate“移民”,如:His grandpa immigrated from Japan 50 years ago.他的祖父50年前从日本移民。

Millions of people in many countries are moving to cities because they need to find work.()


参考答案:正确

问答题
Directions:In this section, there is one passage followed by a summary. Read the passage carefully and complete the summary below by choosing no more than three words from the passage. Remember to write the answers on the Answer Sheet.  Questions 1-5 are based on the following passage.The City of the Future  What will city life be like in the future? Some people think that life in the cities is going to be horrible. They predict that cities will become more and more crowded. As the number of people increases, there will be less space for each person. This overcrowding will cause other problems—more crime, dirtier streets, and worse problems with traffic than we have now. How will people find enough drinking water, energy (such as gas and electricity), and housing? Because life will be hard, people who live in cities will worry more, and they may become sick. For these reasons, some say that nobody will want to live in urban areas.  How can we solve such problems as overcrowding, crime, and traffic? In some cities, thousands of people are already sleeping in the streets because there is so little suitable housing—and because rents are so high. The crime rate isn’t going down. Instead, it is increasing so fast that many people are afraid to go out at night. Traffic is also getting worse. More and more often, traffic jams are so bad that cars don’t move at all for several blocks. These urban problems have been getting worse, not better, so many people see no hope for the future of the city.  Los Angeles, California, for instance, has no subway system and the buses are slow. Instead, most commuters drive many miles from their homes to work. Many of these drivers spend several hours each day on busy freeways. New York, by contrast, has a mass transit system—buses, commuter trains, and subways. Because the public transportation is crowded and dirty, however, many people drive private cars, and the traffic jams are worse than in Los Angeles.  On the other hand, some cities have clean, fast, and pleasant public transportation systems. In Paris, France, and Toronto, Canada, for example, anyone can use mass transit to move quickly from one part of the city to another.  The disadvantages of any modern city are not unique to that city—that is, cities all over the world have to solve the problems of traffic jams, crime, housing, energy, drinking water, and overcrowding. Yet many cities have found answers to one or more of these difficulties. Some European cities, such as Stockholm, Sweden, or London, England, have planned communities that provide people with apartments, jobs, shopping centers, green space, entertainment, and transportation. Many U.S. cities are rebuilding their downtown areas. Urban planners can learn from one another. They can try solutions that have been successful in other parts of the world.  Summary:  Some people think that life in the cities is going to be horrible. They say that cities will become more and more crowded and many other problems will be caused by this  1 Due to the hard life, people do not want to live in  2 These urban problems such as overcrowding, crime and traffic have been getting worse, so many people  3 for the future of the city. However, these disadvantages of any modern city are not unique to that city. All the cities all over the world must solve the problems and fortunately, many of them have found answers to one or more of these difficulties. For example,  4 or London has planned communities providing people with apartments, jobs and so on. Besides, many U. S. cities  5 In a word, solutions that have been successful in a place should be adopted and tried in another place.

正确答案:
1.overcrowding 文章第一段第五句提到“This overcrowding will cause other problems - more crime, dirtier streets, and worse problems with traffic than we have now”,题目为原文的被动语态表述,因此答案为overcrowding。
2.urban areas 文章第一段最后两句提到“Because life will be hard, people who live in cities will worry more, and they may become sick. For these reasons, some say that nobody will want to live in urban areas”,即,由于生活的艰辛,没有人愿意生活在市内。
3.see no hope 文章第二段最后一句提到“These urban problems have been getting worse, not better, so many people see no hope for the future of the city”,因此答案为see no hope。
4.Stockholm 文章最后一段第三句提到“Some European cities, such as Stockholm, Sweden, or London, England, have planned communities that provide people with apartments, jobs, shopping centers, green space, entertainment, and transportation”,句中Stockholm与London并列,因此答案为Stockholm。
5.rebuild downtown areas 文章最后一段中作者举例说明很多城市已经找到了解决城市存在的问题的方法,美国城市即所举例子之一。倒数第三句提到:“Many U. S. cities are rebuilding their downtown areas”,同时考虑到答案不能超过三个词,可知答案为rebuild downtown areas。
解析: 暂无解析

The public transports system in many cities in the world()by the local authority.

  • A、is still ran
  • B、are still run
  • C、are still ran
  • D、is still run

正确答案:D

单选题
The public transports system in many cities in the world()by the local authority.
A

is still ran

B

are still run

C

are still ran

D

is still run


正确答案: A
解析: 暂无解析


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